To prepare the dough, pour the warm water into a small bowl. Sprinkle the yeast and sugar on top of the water. Briefly let the water absorb the yeast, then stir to dissolve it. Let stand for 15 minutes until the mixture is foamy. In the bowl of a heavy-duty electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, combine 1 1/2 cups of the flour and salt at low speed. Add the yeast mixture and oil, and beat until smooth, about 1 minute.
Add the remaining 1 cup of flour and beat for 1 minute, until the dough just clears the sides of the bowl. Turn the dough out on a lightly floured work surface and knead 2 to 3 minutes, until the dough is smooth and elastic. The dough should be soft, but use additional flour as needed, a tablespoon at a time. Place the dough in a lightly oiled bowl, cover with plastic wrap and allow to rest in a warm place until tripled in bulk, about 1½ hours.
Cut the dough into 8 pieces and roll each into a ball. Using a rolling pin or your hand, flatten into 6-inch circles on a lightly floured surface.
Preheat the oven to 425 degrees.
To fill the calzones, distribute the cheese and meat equally among the 8 circles of dough, placing the fillings on the lower third of each circle. Moisten the edges of each with water. Fold the top half over the bottom half to form a half moon, and seal the edges by crimping with a fork. Lightly brush the top and edges with the egg wash.
Place on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper and bake until golden brown, 18 to 20 minutes. Serve each calzone on top of a small mound of olive salad.